5G EXPLAINED in Q&As | What is 5G Technology ? [2021 Update]

Networks are at the core of ICT business providing connectivity and services such as voice, messaging and broadband for customers. We are now embarking on the next generation mobile platform, 5G, which has been coined a General Purpose Technology. New and innovative technologies such as Internet of Things, Virtualization and Cloud, millimeter wave radio networks, massive MIMO etc. are all central in 5G. Check out the basic Q&A below to learn more about 5G technology, business opportunity for ICT service providers, as well as the IoT's many technology aspects.

5g explained


What is 5G? What is 5G Technology ? 5g vs 4g

5G is the next generation mobile network, introducing new radio and core network solutions. Leveraging much on the existing 4G network, but it will secure the further capacity for mobile broadband, supporting IoT and addressing new areas for industry and public services. New spectrum will allow for significantly increased capacity (& speed) and new architecture will allow for very low latency.

Who is 5G for? 

5G will, to a large extent, address today's mobile services, both data and voice, but 5G will also address new areas, serving the society services like e-health, public safety and different industry needs

What will change with 5G? 

The change with 5G is a much wider support for new services and areas for mobile connectivity, and a smart adaption for the different needs/requirements.

What’s the plan for 5G launch?

Leading ICT Service providers are going to run piloting activities around several use cases and locations to gain experience. As for 4G, ICT companies will start building 5G coverage in order to hold the best network position and start working to introduce 5G for new areas – such as e-health, public safety and industry.

What are some key beliefs when it comes to 5G?

  1. 5G is the most investment efficient way to meet the capacity growth
  2. 5G is a prerequisite for delivering new services and verticals in the future, e.g. emergency network services 5G will complement Fiber, and will support Cu decommissioning
  3. In order to fully utilize the commercial potential of new 5G capabilities, there is a need to be first.

5G Transport Network

Transport networks are the crux of the Internet and fundamental for all network services in a future of cloud, virtualization and 5G. A little mentioned fact about mobile networks is that most of their infrastructure is a fixed network. The transport network is what provides connectivity between the cell sites and the mobile core sites and further on to the Internet.
The global teams of transport networking experts are in a joint effort together with focus on how to build transport network efficiently for 5G. More fiber will be needed to carry the increased traffic load between the radio network and the mobile core. 5G networks have very strict timing requirements which will have to be provided by the transport network. In addition, automation solutions for the transport network services must be in place to cater for the 5G use-cases that envision a very high dynamics of delivering network services.

5G outlook for 2021: the transition from 5G+ industry to 5G+ products

Since the official commercial use of 5G in China, 5G has gone through two years, and the pace of 5G progress has become increasingly clear. As of the fourth quarter of 2020, 5G commercial networks in more than 100 countries are in operation worldwide, and there are more than 600,000 5G base stations in China. I believe that in the new year, we can see more changes and upgrades in many industries brought about by 5G network applications in vertical industries.

1. Intergenerational technology advancement of mobile communication

1G: 1986-1999 adopts analog signal, the maximum rate is 2.4K

2G: From 1991 to the present, digital signals are used, time-division multiplexing multiple access methods and higher-order modulation methods are used to increase the amount of information carried under the same bandwidth, thereby increasing the utilization rate of the spectrum. The mainstream technology is GSM and CDMA, the maximum rate is 64K

3G: From 2009 to now, the use of digital signals, code division multiplexing, and Rake reception have changed the way of receiving information, and smart antennas can adapt to the movement of users to make the signal more stable, multi-user detection, etc., and further improve the spectrum utilization And signal-to-noise ratio. The mainstream technology is WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, the maximum rate is 2M

4G: From 2013 to the present, digital signals are adopted, OFDMA technology is used to increase the utilization rate of the spectrum, ICIC technology is to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the power of effective signals, and MIMO technology uses more antennas to achieve multi-point transmission and reception. The mainstream technology is FDD, TDD, the maximum rate is 100M

5G: From 2019 to now, digital signals are adopted, and a brand-new channel coding method is adopted, that is, LDPC coding is used for data channels, and Polar coding is used for control channels and broadcast channels. This improvement can improve the efficiency of NR channel coding, with low complexity and low delay, and at the same time through Massive MIMO ultra-dense networking to improve spectrum utilization and signal-to-noise ratio. The mainstream technology is NR, the maximum rate is 20G

2. Technical collaboration corresponding to the three major application scenarios of 5G

According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) definition of 5G application scenarios, it can be divided into three major application scenarios, namely, eMBB (Enhance Mobile Broadband) enhanced mobile bandwidth, uRLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications) ultra-high reliability and low latency communications, and mMTC (Massive Machine Type Communications) Massive machine communication, etc.

eMBB: Channel bandwidth improvement + NR channel coding efficiency improvement + Massive MIMO ultra-dense networking

Channel bandwidth improvement is actually best understood. Just like a road, the wider the road, the faster the car can run. The channel bandwidth of 2G is generally only 10MHz, while 5G has reached 100MHz. Millimeter wave can even support 400MHz, providing faster conditions.

The turbo code used in the data channel and TBCC for the control channel in the 4G era are prone to errors at higher rates. 5G NR uses a brand new channel coding method, that is, the data channel uses LDPC coding, and the control channel and broadcast channel use Polar code. This improvement can improve the efficiency of NR channel coding, and can achieve a higher transmission rate with low complexity and low delay.

uRLLC: Edge Computing

In addition to improving the efficiency of NR channel coding to achieve low latency in 5G, the most important thing is edge computing.

When the data center is deployed closer to the equipment, the data transmission delay is lower. Therefore, in order to achieve lower latency, data processing that is sensitive to latency requirements will be placed closer to the base station, that is, at the edge of the network, that is, edge computing.


mMTC also has eMTC technology abroad, but only NB-IOT technology in China. NB-IOT technology is the first technology specifically designed for the communication of massive IoT devices. At the ITU-R WP5D #35 meeting that ended on July 9, 2020, 3GPP technology was officially accepted as ITU IMT-2020 5G technology standard.

3. Policies strongly support the 5G industry

Since the commercialization of 5G, various national ministries and commissions have frequently issued various policies to support the development of 5G, and various local governments have also set 5G development goals.

Development status of 5G

1. The status quo of the 5G industry chain

Core equipment manufacturers: The only companies in the country that provide 5G core communication equipment are Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson, Nokia, and Samsung.

Operators: China Mobile and China Telecom are the most active operators in China. So far, China Mobile has 165 million 5G users, while Telecom has 86.5 million 5G users. China Unicom has opened 5G services, but has not announced its 5G subscriber numbers so far, and it will take time for the radio and ionization of 5G commercial applications.

Industry application solutions: Although 5G has different focuses in thousands of industries, all applications are implemented, 5G + entertainment, 5G + medical, 5G + industry, 5G + power grid, 5G + finance, 5G + retail, 5G + travel, 5G + life , 5G + smart city, 5G + agriculture, etc.

5G Development Outlook in 2021

It can be said that 2020 is a process of continuous exploration of 5G in thousands of industries. Although it has not blossomed, it has taken root. And in 2021, it will be intensively cultivated in the original industry scenario, and 5G will change from the "5G+ industry" test mode to the "5G+ product" application mode.

1. 5G+ weak terminal

The so-called "weak terminal" means that the local computing power of the terminal is very weak, and it can only provide information distribution, simple operation, display and simple data processing capabilities. Most of the computing power has been migrated to the cloud. Representative products include "cloud mobile phone", "cloud computer", "cloud desktop" and other products.

2. 5G+ network lease

That is, 5G private network. 5G public network applications are subject to high base station costs, high power consumption, insufficient coverage, and slow development of industry applications. The 5G private network can follow up customer needs to build the network, and charge construction fees, bandwidth lease fees, etc. This allows operators to obtain reliable returns on their input and output.

In terms of customer use, the mobility of narrowband private network equipment is limited and practical applications are inconvenient; industrial-grade wifi is more stable and less secure, and cannot meet actual industry needs; the cost of LTE private network terminal modules is very high and applications are difficult to deploy open. However, some wireless private networks use non-3GPP standards, which have many restrictions and slow technology updates, which cannot keep up with the evolution of industry applications.

The 5G private network can be regionally designed according to the scope of deployment, using specific frequency bands, personalized network requirements, and flexible deployment. It is especially suitable for scenarios with demanding delay requirements, high reliability requirements, high uplink speed requirements, and strict data security and isolation requirements. Such as medical, energy, manufacturing, etc.

3. 5G+ message distribution

That is 5G news. 5G is an upgrade of the short message service. It is an enhanced message service for users, which can provide users with the sending and receiving of text, pictures, audio, video, location, contact (vCard) and other media content.

5G messaging has the capabilities of being safe and reliable, chatting with strangers, and full-featured. It can upgrade messaging service capabilities and improve user experience. It has the opportunity to re-awaken the SMS service and compete with current OTT chat applications.

The 5G Era is Faster Than Expected!

Introduction: 2021 is destined to be a magnificent year and an extraordinary year.
On June 28, 2019, in the context of the deep integration of informatization and industrialization, Dongfeng Motor Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Dongfeng Company") and Tencent joined forces to formally sign a strategic cooperation agreement in Shenzhen. According to the agreement, the two parties will use capital cooperation, strategic alliances, project cooperation and other methods to carry out strategic cooperation in seven major areas including connected cars, vehicle safety, autonomous driving, smart mobility, smart logistics, joint innovation, and digital transformation. Jointly build a new ecology of "Auto Industry Internet".

Just in early June last year, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued 5G licenses to the three major operators and China Radio and Television. Compared with the previous 5G commercial table in 2020, China's 5G commercial time has accelerated by a year. As an important field of 5G commercial applications, the automotive industry may usher in a disruptive change. In order to seize the 5G commanding heights, Dongfeng took the lead in entering the game. It not only partnered with Huawei to jointly build a "Smart Travel Longzhong" in Xiangyang, but also launched the Sharing-VAN mobile travel service platform integrating L4 autonomous driving + 5G remote driving + V2X + remote dispatch. With the blessing of 5G, the cooperation between Dongfeng and Tencent is bound to usher in greater room for development.

Join forces to move towards an intelligent world of Internet of Everything

From the birth of 1G in the 1980s, to the unimpeded flow of 2G voice and text messages, to 3G Internet browsing and 4G mobile digital commercial use, each generation of communication technology has continued to evolve on the basis of the previous generation. Today, 5G, marked by high reliability and low latency, will not only solve the communication problem between people, but also realize the interconnection of everything between people and things, and things and things. This is the carrier of new technologies and new applications from beginning to end. ——For automobiles, it will undoubtedly be a new revolution.

As an automobile company with a history of 50 years, Dongfeng has always maintained a keen insight into the development of the industry, keeping pace with the times and leading the trend. The strategic cooperation between Dongfeng and Tencent is not only a cross-border cooperation, but also a strong alliance. It is also a new exploration in conforming to the development trend of the automobile industry and grasping the wave of 5G technology. With the blessing of 5G, from terminal applications to the construction of smart travel and smart transportation, the imagination of car companies and Internet companies extends infinitely.

In order to explore smart city solutions, on April 2, 2019, Dongfeng Company, Xiangyang Municipal People’s Government, and Huawei signed a strategic cooperation framework agreement for the “Smart Travel Longzhong” project in Xiangyang, focusing on Smart Car Valley, Smart Mobility, Smart Logistics and Smart The four projects of the transportation cloud platform have been constructed successively, and are committed to building Xiangyang into a national intelligent networked vehicle demonstration area, a smart travel and smart logistics innovation pilot area, and a smart transportation benchmark city.

In the "Smart Travel Longzhong" project, the three parties will also jointly build a mobile travel service platform integrating autonomous driving + 5G remote driving + dispatch monitoring system. In the future, on the basis of the platform, Dongfeng will also improve platform applications and functions according to more travel needs, and work with all parties to build a new ecology of mobile travel services.

Dongfeng has a long history of cooperation with Huawei. Since joining hands in 2012, the two parties began to develop next-generation in-vehicle systems in the following year. In 2014, Dongfeng Company signed a cooperation framework agreement with Huawei. In 2018, it signed a deepening strategic cooperation agreement to fully carry out joint innovation in the field of forward-looking technology. At present, the first LTE-V/5G car networking demonstration zone in Central China jointly built by Dongfeng Company and Huawei has been completed and passed the remote driving technology test.

As a partner of Dongfeng, Huawei is in a leading position in 5G technology and commercial applications. Six years ago, Huawei deployed a cloud computing data center in Xiangyang. Relying on its powerful data capabilities, Huawei will assist Dongfeng Company and Xiangyang City to jointly build an urban-level 5G and C-V2X vehicle-road collaborative commercial smart transportation infrastructure from vehicle, road, and cloud, and provide vehicle-road collaboration-based security Application scenarios, jointly build Xiangyang autonomous driving bus demonstration line.

At the same time, Xiangyang Daan Automobile Testing Center is also seizing new opportunities in the 5G era. As early as 2018, the CNCA reviewed and approved Daan Center's application for the establishment of an intelligent networked vehicle supervision and inspection center, and officially issued a document to approve the preparation. In the second half of this year, the third phase of the Xiangyang Daan Center project covering the 5G network will be completed and put into use. By then, autonomous vehicles will be fully and effectively tested, and the fourth phase of the project is also stepping up planning and construction, and will fully cover the 5G network . Xiangyang, the city that carries the strategic layout of Dongfeng's intelligent networked vehicles, has already demonstrated its multi-faceted advantages and is entering a new era of intelligent interconnection of everything.

Panoramic planning of intelligent networked vehicle test field

Products enter the market to build a new ecosystem of intelligent network connection

As the commercialization of 5G technology matures, cars equipped with 5G networks no longer stay in the laboratory stage, but gradually enter people's lives in the form of a highly intelligent, emotional, multi-scene "mobile space".

Since 2013, Dongfeng Company has begun to develop unmanned driving technology and formally established an Intelligent Networking Department. In the past six years, Dongfeng Company has been non-stop and has achieved outstanding results. It has successively launched the 2013 version of Dongfeng Fengshen A60 intelligent prototype, 2014 version of Dongfeng Fengshen AX7 intelligent 1.0 prototype, 2017 version of Dongfeng Fengshen AX7 intelligent driving 2.0 prototype, and completed automatic parking, Engineering and industrialization of new technologies such as intelligent assisted driving.

At the 3rd Science and Technology Innovation Week of Dongfeng Technology Center in 2018, Dongfeng Company demonstrated an unmanned prototype vehicle remotely controlled via LTE/5G network. The driver sits in the operating room and can test the vehicle outdoors within milliseconds. Start, accelerate, decelerate, turn...

Dongfeng LTE-V/5G remote driverless prototype vehicle

At present, Dongfeng's driverless passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles have reached L3 and L4 levels respectively. The Dongfeng Technology Center Park has completed the construction of the LTE-V/5G Internet of Vehicles test network, realized the line-of-sight coverage of all roads in the park, and entered the remote driving technology verification.

It is worth mentioning that since Dongfeng and Huawei reached a strategic cooperation in Xiangyang, Dongfeng Fengshen has also initiated 5G autonomous driving research with Huawei. 5G-level autonomous driving can be realized in 2021 and L4 autonomous driving in 2022.

In April last year, Dongfeng took another step in the field of 5G autonomous driving and launched the latest technological achievement-Sharing-VAN mobile travel service platform. The body of Sharing-VAN is made of carbon fiber material, and has 13 functions such as one-key recruitment, dynamic speed limit, round-the-island traffic, dynamic obstacle avoidance, multi-vehicle formation, automatic parking and background recruitment, remote control, and dispatch monitoring. Sharing-VAN actively provides consumers with "last mile" travel solutions. It is Dongfeng's new exploration of future smart public transportation and a new vision for a better car life in the future.

Sharing-VAN debuted in Xiangyang

Let the huge truck realize unmanned driving? This is not a foolish dream. In May last year, my country’s first large-scale commercial vehicle platoon-following test event was held in Xiqing District, Tianjin. Dongfeng Tianlong KL successfully passed the driverless truck platoon-following organized by the National Automotive Standardization Technical Committee Intelligent Networked Vehicle Sub-Technical Committee. Function public verification test.

In the 5G era, it is coming faster than expected; Dongfeng Company has deployed ahead of schedule and is at the forefront of the times. In the future, Dongfeng will continue to grasp the development trend of 5G technology, build a new ecosystem of intelligent networked vehicles based on the future, and inject more innovative momentum into the realization of the goal of "three leading, one leading".

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